AldwychThe Aldwych and Kingsway scheme was the London County Council's first large urban improvement scheme in central London. It was opened in 1905 and signalled the council's vision of London as a modern city of tree-lined boulevards, office blocks and free-flowing traffic. There had long been calls for a new route for traffic between Holborn and Fleet Street, but it was not until the London County Council (L.C.C) came into existence that the scheme took shape. A new road was proposed between Holborn and Fleet Street. The slum properties and crowded alleys at the east end of the Strand would first have to be cleared, which was seen as a further advantage of the scheme. Although modern in spirit, the scheme respected London's past. The new crescent at the south end was designed around the historic church of St Clement Danes. The Saxon-sounding name given to the new crescent, Aldwych, was chosen as a reminder of London's long history of continuous settlement. From its beginning, the Aldwych and Kingsway district had overseas associations. Aldwych's location on the royal route between the palace and St Paul's Cathedral made it suitably symbolic for buildings associated with the Empire. Australia House, constructed between 1913 and 1918, was the first of the large Dominion headquarters in the area, and India House followed in the late 1920s. However American associations came to dominate this part of London. The Waldorf Hotel was built in the north side of the Aldwych crescent between 1906 and 1908 and soon became a meeting place for Americans in London. Several American firms established their headquarter buildings in the new office blocks that were erected along Kingsway, among them Kodak, whose 1911 building was one of London's most architecturally modern buildings at the time.
The StrandStrand derives its name from the Old English word for "shore" or "river bank". (Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese, Finnish, German and Dutch have all derived their word for "beach" from the same Germanic root; many beaches in Ireland are still called "strands".)The street is popularly referred to as the Strand although the street address is actually just "Strand", hence, strictly speaking, "377 Strand" and not "377, the Strand". On the Monopoly board it is written as "Strand", while on the title deed card it is "The Strand".From the 12th century onwards, large mansions lined the Strand including several palaces and townhouses inhabited by bishops and royal courtiers, mainly on the south side, with their own river gates and landings directly on the Thames. The road was poorly maintained, with many pits and sloughs, and a paving order was issued in 1532 to improve traffic.
#42- Aldwych, London
#43- The Strand
The Thames EmbankmentThe Thames Embankment is a major feat of 19th century civil engineering designed to reclaim marshy land next to the River Thames in central London. It consists of the Victoria and Chelsea Embankment.There had been a long history of failed proposals to embank the Thames in central London. Embankments along the Thames were first proposed by Christopher Wren in the 1660s, then in 1824 former soldier and aide to George IV, Sir Frederick Trench suggested an embankment known as 'Trench's Terrace' from Blackfriars to Charing Cross. Trench brought a bill to parliament which was blocked by river interests. In the 1830s, the painter John Martin promoted an embankment to contain an intercepting sewer.
In January 1842 the City Corporation's adopted a plan designed by James Walker but the plan fell foul of Government infighting. The Government itself built the Chelsea Embankment in 1854 from Chelsea Hospital to Millbank.Started in 1862, the present embankment on the northern side of the river was primarily designed by Sir Joseph Bazalgette, incorporates the main low level interceptor sewer from west London, and an underground railway over which a wide road and riverside walkway were also constructed, as well as a retaining wall along the north side of the River Thames. In all Bazalgette's scheme reclaimed 22 acres of land from the river.
#46- The Thames Embankment
#45- The Thames Embankment
Cheapside Cheapside is the former site of one of the principal produce markets in London, cheap broadly meaning "market" in mediæval English. Many of the streets feeding into the main thoroughfare are named after the produce that was originally sold in those areas of the market, for example, Honey Lane, Milk Street, Bread Street and Poultry. During the reign of King Edward III (in the 1300s) tournaments were held in adjacent fields. The dangers were however not limited to the participants since a wooden stand, built to accommodate Queen Philippa and her companions, collapsed during a tournament to celebrate the birth of the Black Prince in 1330. No one died but the King was greatly displeased and were it not for the Queen's intercession, the stand's builders would have been put to death. After the great Church of St Michael le Querne, the top end of the street broadened into a dual carriageway known as the Shambles (referring to an open-air slaughterhouse and meat market), with butchers shops on both sides and a dividing central area also composed of butchers shops. Further down, on the right, was Goldsmiths Row, an area of commodity dealers. From the 14th Century until the Great Fire, the eastern end of Cheapside was the location of the Great Conduit. Charles Dickens, Jr wrote in his 1879 book Dickens's Dictionary of London: " Cheapside remains now what it was five centuries ago, the greatest thoroughfare in the City of London. Other localities have had their day, have risen, become fashionable, and have sunk into obscurity and neglect, but Cheapside has maintained its place, and may boast of being the busiest thoroughfare in the world, with the sole exception perhaps of London-bridge. "
LudgateLudgate Hill is a hill in the City of London, near the old Ludgate, a gate to the City that was taken down, with its attached jail, in 1780. Ludgate Hill is the site of St Paul's Cathedral, traditionally said to have been the site of a Roman temple of the goddess Diana. It is one of the three ancient hills of London, the others being Tower Hill and Cornhill. Ludgate Hill is also a related street which runs west from St. Paul's Churchyard to Ludgate Circus (built in 1864), and from there becomes Fleet Street. It was formerly a much narrower street called Ludgate Street. The legendary King Ludd is another traditional or mythical founder of the settlement or City of London, Caer-Ludd in the 1st century BCE. 'London' is allegedly derived from 'Ludd-deen' or 'Valley of Ludd'. St. Paul's is situated on top of Ludgate Hill, the supposed settlement of Ludd. Many small alleys on Ludgate Hill were swept away in late 1860s to build Ludgate Hill railway station between Water Lane and New Bridge Street, a station of the London, Chatham and Dover Railway. It was closed before World War II and the railway bridge and viaduct between Holborn Viaduct and Blackfriars stations was demolished in 1990 to enable the construction of the City Thameslink railway station in a tunnel. This also involved the regrading of the slope of Ludgate Hill at the junction. There is a blue plaque near the bottom of the hill with these words "In a house near this site was published in 1702 The Daily Courant first London daily newspaper".
#44- Ludgate Hill
St Brides Church; Aldwych; The Strand; The Thames Embankment; Cheapside; Ludgate